Nadine Gordimer Reinhold Cassirer Essay

“It was ugly,” wrote Nadine Gordimer in 1973, making no apology for the brutalised landscapes she grew up in and called home for nine decades.

“Rusted iron, a three-day beard of prickly khaki-weed, the veld burned off and the sand blowing in the season that passes for spring, in Africa.”

This directness, as well as Gordimer’s ability to retrieve a strange beauty from the blighted landscapes surrounding Johannesburg, won her an early fan in David Goldblatt. 

The Randfontein-born photographer first encountered her writing in the late 1940s, as a high school pupil reading her debut collection of short stories, The Soft Voice of the Serpent.

“Her early stories made tangible for me the tastes and experiences, smells and places I knew intimately but which I had never managed to verbalise,” remarked Goldblatt in a 2008 interview.

“The stories actively propelled me into wanting to realise this acute sense of these places and people in photographs.”

Bland Bs
When in the late 1960s he eventually began photographing the mining landscapes around Boksburg, Benoni and Brakpan – the three bland Bs that preface entry into Gordimer’s birthplace, Springs – he decided to approach her to write about his work.

Lionel Abrahams, a poet and influential literary editor who years later would praise Gordimer’s “philharmonious prose”, made the crucial introduction.

The mechanics of the hook-up had a different pace to today’s instant email introductions. Abrahams presented Gordimer with some of Goldblatt’s prints to view. (A keen viewer of art, her tastes sharpened through her marriage to art dealer Reinhold Cassirer). Gordimer liked what she saw. Yes, she replied. An influential collaboration ensued.

Published in 1973, On the Mines was Goldblatt’s first book of photographs that included a sumptuous and unapologetic essay by Gordimer, marked by its cool wonderment at the brutal sensory details of life in what then was the world’s pre-eminent gold mining region.

Clipped retorts
Four decades later, seated between Goldblatt and Gordimer for a conversation at the Goodman Gallery, I asked them if there were any discrepancies in their viewpoints. After all, they came from opposing points of the compass.

Goldblatt, who has many times joked about looking down on the East Rand from the vantage of Randfontein, smiled. Gordimer, however, was a chiselled statue. “No,” she said. And so it continued: one series of clipped retorts followed by another.

I offered, in a desperate bid at seriousness, the view that in 1972 the Durban dockworker strike had initiated further labour action that spilled over into 1973 and gave the wider labour movement a much-needed shot in the arm.

In publishing On the Mines in that crucial year, in releasing a book that made no bones about the exploitation of black labour, was she perhaps expressing solidarity with the cause? “No.”

Okay, so what about that beautiful phrase from The Conservationist, “industrial rusticity”, which Gordimer uses to account for the fallow mining land that surrounds Johannesburg’s southern edges. Could she perhaps speak about that? “Did I write that? Can’t remember.”

Different side
Later, seated at a lunch table in Atholl, Gordimer revealed a different side. She was dwarfed by a group of artists and gallery staff breaking bread.

William Kentridge said something. Gordimer challenged him. The tête-à-tête culminated with her cutting Kentridge short: “I don’t believe you. I am going to ask your father.”

It was not a mean-spirited gesture, not even an assertion of rank. Rather, it was a moment of intimacy between two family friends, aristocrats of a particular type, both arguing their positions from a vantage of privilege, a privilege that did not preclude activism, and plaited cultural expression with political comment.

Gordimer’s influence on Kentridge cannot be overstated. In a 2005 interview he told me how reading her Booker prize-winning novel The Conservationist clarified Johannesburg for him, made its ugly landscapes legible.

“People like Gordimer or JM Coetzee act as confirmations of a sense of the world, rather than being where ideas spring from.”

Cassirer and Kentridge
It was Gordimer’s husband, Cassirer, who prompted a younger and more uncertain Kentridge to continue with his work. It was also Cassirer who gave Linda Givon, the former owner of the Goodman Gallery, an artist on the cusp of greatness when he retired.

“You mustn’t eat with your hands when you have lunch with her,” he admonished Kentridge at a luncheon formalising the handover. “You must eat with your fork and knife.”

Cassirer’s world unavoidably informed Gordimer’s writing. In her novel Occasion for Loving (1963), the British expatriate Anna Davis finds herself with the liberal Johannesburg couple, the Sitwells. They discuss whether “group shows were more or less satisfying than one-man shows”. Anna also has an affair with a black artist, Gideon Shibalo.

Unlike John Berger, the novelist and art critic who won the Booker prize in 1972 for G – and famously donated half his winnings to the Black Panther Party – Gordimer did not try negotiate that volatile space between fiction and art criticism, a space explored by writers such as Don DeLillo and Ivan Vladislavic.

Documentary truth
We don’t really look to Gordimer for art insights. And yet, some of her writing has a documentary truth.

Her short story Africa Emergent, written in July 1970, tells the story of sculptor Elias Nkomo, a man she describes as “slight, round-headed, tiny-eared, dunly dressed, and with a frown of effort between his eyes”. Like Jackson Hlungwani, his work is “carved out of streaky knotted wood”. And like Hlungwani, the white dealer market seizes him. Nkomo is offered a one-man show.

“An art critic wrote about his transcendental values and plastic modality,” Gordimer offers via her narrator, a white architect.

“Christ, man, does he dig it or doesn’t he?” responds Nkomo.

He is shortly forgotten by the carnivorous art market, shacks up with “a patroness … an American lady, very old and wealthy”, and – in an echo of the real life story of artist Dumile Feni, who went into exile in 1968, some say because of his affair with American journalist Mary McFadden – leaves South Africa.

Gordimer stayed put and wrote, possibly with waning acuity, as her final novel – wrapped in a Karel Nel artwork – revealed. But for a long time, longer than most, she was a lighthouse penetrating the thick dark with a fragile light.

Sean O’Toole is a Cape Town-based writer, co-editor of Cityscapes, a journal of urban enquiry, and author of The Marquis of Mooikloof.


A voice that rose above the rumble of race

Sometime in the mid-1990s, in that exciting and scary interregnum between the unbanning of the liberation movements and the first democratic election, I shared a stage with Nadine Gordimer at the old Windybrow Theatre in Hillbrow.

It was a Congress of South African Writers (Cosaw) event; in those days, there was an ideological rivalry between Cosaw and the more Black Consciousness-aligned African Writers Association.

A member of the latter groupuscule, I believe, took me to task after I read a passage from a fictional reconstruction of the Bhisho massacre (Red Rover), from the point of view of one of the participants.

I was told by the audience member who spoke up that it was wrong for white writers to appropriate the experience of black people. I replied that I could see the logic, but in fact in my piece, at least, I was thinking of how the Bhisho massacre must’ve looked from the perspective of Ronnie Kasrils, one of its leaders, and ­Kasrils was white. (“Or he was when I last checked,” I joked, but this was no time for jokes.)

Gordimer intervened, in her high, somewhat piercing voice (it was like a flute that can be heard even over much low bass rumble), saying in her slightly imperious manner that she couldn’t see why white people shouldn’t write about black people and black people shouldn’t write about white people as much as everyone liked. She confessed that she had once abandoned a piece about a black child because she simply couldn’t see the world from that angle, but that didn’t mean we shouldn’t try to see into and through each others’ worlds.

The debate went on for a bit after that, with some more long statements from the floor. If Gordimer had intended to nip them in the bud, it hadn’t worked.

What I liked, though, in her response, besides the fact that she stuck by racial crossover instead of separatism, was that she privileged the literary over the political judgment, or at least in the case of who was allowed to write about whom. Instinctively, she was in favour of opening, not closing, and that’s what made her a great writer too. – Shaun de Waal

Shaun de Waal has worked at the Mail & Guardian since 1989. He was literary editor from 1991 to 2006 and chief film critic for 15 years. He is now editor-at-large. Recent publications include Exposure: Queer Fiction, 25 Years of the Mail & Guardian and Not the Movie of the Week.
  • Read more from Shaun de Waal
  • Nadine Gordimer

    Nadine Gordimer (20 November 1923 – 13 July 2014) was a South African writer, political activist and recipient of the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature. She was recognized as a woman "who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity".[1]

    Gordimer's writing dealt with moral and racial issues, particularly apartheid in South Africa. Under that regime, works such as Burger's Daughter and July's People were banned. She was active in the anti-apartheid movement, joining the African National Congress during the days when the organization was banned, and gave Nelson Mandela advice on his famous 1964 defence speech at the trial which led to his conviction for life. She was also active in HIV/AIDS causes.

    Personal life[edit]

    Gordimer was born near Springs, Gauteng, an East Randmining town outside Johannesburg. Her father, Isidore Gordimer, was a Jewish immigrant watchmaker from Žagarė (then Russian Empire, now Lithuania),[2][3] and her mother, Hannah "Nan" (Myers) Gordimer, was from London.[4][5] Her mother was from an assimilated family of Jewish origins; Gordimer was raised in a secular household.[2]

    Gordimer's early interest in racial and economic inequality in South Africa was shaped in part by her parents. Her father's experience as a refugee in tsarist Russia helped form Gordimer's political identity, but he was neither an activist nor particularly sympathetic toward the experiences of black people under apartheid.[6] Conversely, Gordimer saw activism by her mother, whose concern about the poverty and discrimination faced by black people in South Africa ostensibly led her to found a crèche for black children.[5] Gordimer also witnessed government repression first-hand as a teenager; the police raided her family home, confiscating letters and diaries from a servant's room.[5]

    Gordimer was educated at a Catholicconvent school, but was largely home-bound as a child because her mother, for "strange reasons of her own," did not put her into school (apparently, she feared that Gordimer had a weak heart).[6] Home-bound and often isolated, she began writing at an early age, and published her first stories in 1937 at the age of 15.[7] Her first published work was a short story for children, "The Quest for Seen Gold," which appeared in the Children's Sunday Express in 1937; "Come Again Tomorrow," another children's story, appeared in Forum around the same time. At the age of 16, she had her first adult fiction published.[8]

    Gordimer studied for a year at the University of the Witwatersrand, where she mixed for the first time with fellow professionals across the colour bar. She also became involved in the Sophiatown renaissance.[8] She did not complete her degree, but moved to Johannesburg in 1948, where she lived thereafter. While taking classes in Johannesburg, she continued to write, publishing mostly in local South African magazines. She collected many of these early stories in Face to Face, published in 1949.

    In 1951, the New Yorker accepted Gordimer's story "A Watcher of the Dead",[9] beginning a long relationship, and bringing Gordimer's work to a much larger public. Gordimer, who said she believed the short story was the literary form for our age,[7] continued to publish short stories in the New Yorker and other prominent literary journals. Her first publisher, Lulu Friedman, was the wife of the Parliamentarian Bernard Friedman, and it was at their house, "Tall Trees" in First Avenue, Lower Houghton, Johannesburg, that Gordimer met other anti-apartheid writers.[10]

    Gordimer's first novel, The Lying Days, was published in 1953. Gordimer had a daughter, Oriane (born 1950), by her first marriage in 1949 to Gerald Gavron, a local dentist, from whom she was divorced within three years.[11] In 1954, she married Reinhold Cassirer, a highly respected art dealer who established the South African Sotheby's and later ran his own gallery; their "wonderful marriage"[6] lasted until his death from emphysema in 2001. Their son, Hugo, was born in 1955, and is a filmmaker in New York, with whom Gordimer collaborated on at least two documentaries. Hugo Cassirer later married Sarah Buttrick, and had three children.

    Activism and professional life[edit]

    The arrest of her best friend, Bettie du Toit, in 1960 and the Sharpeville massacre spurred Gordimer's entry into the anti-apartheid movement.[5] Thereafter, she quickly became active in South African politics, and was close friends with Nelson Mandela's defence attorneys (Bram Fischer and George Bizos) during his 1962 trial.[5] She also helped Mandela edit his famous speech "I Am Prepared to Die", given from the defendant's dock at the trial.[12] When Mandela was released from prison in 1990, she was one of the first people he wanted to see.[5]

    During the 1960s and 1970s, she continued to live in Johannesburg, although she occasionally left for short periods of time to teach at several universities in the United States. She had begun to achieve international literary recognition, receiving her first major award in 1961. Throughout this time, Gordimer continued to demand through both her writing and her activism that South Africa re-examine and replace its long held policy of apartheid.

    During this time, the South African government banned several of her works, two for lengthy periods of time. The Late Bourgeois World was Gordimer's first personal experience with censorship; it was banned in 1976 for a decade by the South African government.[11][13]A World of Strangers was banned for twelve years.[11] Other works were censored for lesser amounts of time. Burger's Daughter, published in June 1979, was banned one month later; the Publications Committee's Appeal Board reversed the censorship of Burger's Daughter six months later, determining that the book was too one-sided to be subversive.[14] Gordimer responded to this decision in Essential Gesture (1988), pointing out that the board banned two books by black authors at the same time it unbanned her own work.[15]July's People was also banned under apartheid, and faced censorship under the post-apartheid government as well.[16] In 2001, a provincial education department temporarily removed July's People from the school reading list, along with works by other anti-apartheid writers,[17] describing July's People as "deeply racist, superior and patronizing"[18]—a characterization that Gordimer took as a grave insult, and that many literary and political figures protested.[17]

    In South Africa, she joined the African National Congress when it was still listed as an illegal organization by the South African government.[5][19] While never blindly loyal to any organization, Gordimer saw the ANC as the best hope for reversing South Africa's treatment of black citizens. Rather than simply criticizing the organization for its perceived flaws, she advocated joining it to address them.[5] She hid ANC leaders in her own home to aid their escape from arrest by the government, and she said that the proudest day of her life was when she testified at the 1986 Delmas Treason Trial on behalf of 22 South African anti-apartheid activists.[5][19] (See Simon Nkoli, Mosiuoa Lekota, etc.) Throughout these years she also regularly took part in anti-apartheid demonstrations in South Africa, and traveled internationally speaking out against South African apartheid and discrimination and political repression.[5]

    Her works began achieving literary recognition early in her career, with her first international recognition in 1961, followed by numerous literary awards throughout the ensuing decades. Literary recognition for her accomplishments culminated with the Nobel Prize for Literature on 3 October 1991,[20] which noted that Gordimer "through her magnificent epic writing has—in the words of Alfred Nobel—been of very great benefit to humanity".[1]

    Gordimer's activism was not limited to the struggle against apartheid. She resisted censorship and state control of information, and fostered the literary arts. She refused to let her work be aired by the South African Broadcasting Corporation because it was controlled by the apartheid government.[21] Gordimer also served on the steering committee of South Africa's Anti-Censorship Action Group. A founding member of the Congress of South African Writers, Gordimer was also active in South African letters and international literary organizations. She was Vice President of International PEN.

    In the post-apartheid 1990s and 21st century, Gordimer was active in the HIV/AIDS movement, addressing a significant public health crisis in South Africa. In 2004, she organized about 20 major writers to contribute short fiction for Telling Tales, a fundraising book for South Africa's Treatment Action Campaign, which lobbies for government funding for HIV/AIDS prevention and care.[22] On this matter, she was critical of the South African government, noting in 2004 that she approved of everything President Thabo Mbeki had done except his stance on AIDS.[22][23][24]

    While on lecture tours, she spoke on matters of foreign policy and discrimination beyond South Africa. For instance, in 2005, when Fidel Castro fell ill, Gordimer joined six other Nobel prizewinners in a public letter to the United States warning it not to seek to destabilize Cuba's communist government. Gordimer's resistance to discrimination extended to her even refusing to accept "shortlisting" in 1998 for the Orange Prize, because the award recognizes only women writers.[citation needed]

    In 2006, Gordimer was attacked in her home by robbers, sparking outrage in the country. Gordimer apparently refused to move into a gated complex, against the advice of some friends.[25]

    In a 1979–80 interview Gordimer identified herself as an atheist, but added: "I think I have a basically religious temperament, perhaps even a profoundly religious one."[26]

    Ronald Suresh Roberts published a biography of Gordimer, No Cold Kitchen, in 2006. She had granted Roberts interviews and access to her personal papers, with an understanding that she would authorise the biography in return for a right to review the manuscript before publication. However, Gordimer and Roberts failed to reach an agreement over his account of the illness and death of Gordimer's husband Reinhold Cassirer and an affair Gordimer had in the 1950s, as well as criticism of her views on the Israel-Palestine conflict. Roberts published independently, not as "authorized", and Gordimer disowned the book, accusing Roberts of breach of trust.[27]

    In addition to those disagreements, Roberts criticises Gordimer's post-apartheid advocacy on behalf of black South Africans, in particular her opposition to the government's handling of the AIDS crisis, as a paternalistic and hypocritical white liberalism. The biography also stated that Gordimer's 1954 New Yorker essay, "A South African Childhood", was not wholly biographical and contained some fabricated events.[27]

    Gordimer died in her sleep on 13 July 2014 at the age of 90.[28][29][30]

    Works, themes, and reception[edit]

    Gordimer achieved lasting international recognition for her works, most of which deal with political issues, as well as the "moral and psychological tensions of her racially divided home country."[31] Virtually all of Gordimer's works deal with themes of love and politics, particularly concerning race in South Africa. Always questioning power relations and truth, Gordimer tells stories of ordinary people, revealing moral ambiguities and choices. Her characterization is nuanced, revealed more through the choices her characters make than through their claimed identities and beliefs. She also weaves in subtle details within the characters' names.

    Overview of critical works[edit]

    Her first published novel, The Lying Days (1953), takes place in Gordimer's home town of Springs, Transvaal, an East Rand mining town near Johannesburg. Arguably a semi-autobiographical work, The Lying Days is a Bildungsroman, charting the growing political awareness of a young white woman, Helen, toward small-town life and South African racial division.[32]

    In her 1963 work, Occasion for Loving, Gordimer puts apartheid and love squarely together. Her protagonist, Ann Davis, is married to Boaz Davis, an ethnomusicologist, but in love with Gideon Shibalo, an artist with several failed relationships. Ann Davis is white, however, and Gideon Shibalo is black, and South Africa's government criminalised such relationships.

    Gordimer collected the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for A Guest of Honour in 1971 and, in common with a number of winners of this award, she was to go on to win the Booker Prize. The Booker was awarded to Gordimer for her 1974 novel, The Conservationist, and was a co-winner with Stanley Middleton's novel Holiday. The Conservationist explores Zulu culture and the world of a wealthy white industrialist through the eyes of Mehring, the antihero. Per Wästberg described The Conservationist as Gordimer's "densest and most poetical novel".[5] Thematically covering the same ground as Olive Schreiner's The Story of an African Farm (1883) and J. M. Coetzee's In the Heart of the Country (1977), the "conservationist" seeks to conserve nature to preserve the apartheid system, keeping change at bay. When an unidentified corpse is found on his farm, Mehring does the "right thing" by providing it a proper burial; but the dead person haunts the work, a reminder of the bodies on which Mehring's vision would be built.

    Gordimer's 1979 novel Burger's Daughter is the story of a woman analysing her relationship with her father, a martyr to the anti-apartheid movement. The child of two Communist and anti-apartheid revolutionaries, Rosa Burger finds herself drawn into political activism as well. Written in the aftermath of the 1976 Soweto uprising, the novel was shortly thereafter banned by the South African government. Gordimer described the novel as a "coded homage" to Bram Fischer, the lawyer who defended Nelson Mandela and other anti-apartheid activists.[5][33]

    In July's People (1981), she imagines a bloody South African revolution, in which white people are hunted and murdered after blacks revolt against the apartheid government. The work follows Maureen and Bamford Smales, an educated white couple, hiding for their lives with July, their long-time former servant. The novel plays off the various groups of "July's people": his family and his village, as well as the Smales. The story examines how people cope with the terrible choices forced on them by violence, race hatred, and the state.[citation needed]

    The House Gun (1998) was Gordimer's second post-apartheid novel. It follows the story of a couple, Claudia and Harald Lingard, dealing with their son Duncan's murder of one of his housemates. The novel treats the rising crime rate in South Africa and the guns that virtually all households have, as well as the legacy of South African apartheid and the couple's concerns about their son's lawyer, who is black. The novel was optioned for film rights to Granada Productions.[34][35][36]

    Gordimer's award-winning 2002 novel, The Pickup, considers the issues of displacement, alienation, and immigration; class and economic power; religious faith; and the ability for people to see, and love, across these divides. It tells the story of a couple: Julie Summers, a white woman from a financially secure family, and Abdu, an illegal Arab immigrant in South Africa. After Abdu's visa is refused, the couple returns to his homeland, where she is the alien. Her experiences and growth as an alien in another culture form the heart of the work.[37][38][39][40]

    Get a Life, written in 2005 after the death of her long-time spouse, Reinhold Cassirer, is the story of a man undergoing treatment for a life-threatening disease. While clearly drawn from personal life experiences, the novel also continues Gordimer's exploration of political themes. The protagonist is an ecologist, battling installation of a planned nuclear plant. But he is at the same time undergoing radiation therapy for his cancer, causing him personal grief and, ironically, rendering him a nuclear health hazard in his own home. Here, Gordimer again pursues the questions of how to integrate everyday life and political activism.[19]New York Times critic J. R. Ramakrishnan, who noted a similarity with author Mia Alvar, wrote that Gordimer wrote about "long-suffering spouses and (the) familial enablers of political men" in her fiction.[41]

    Honours and awards[edit]

    Bibliography[edit]

    This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

    Novels[edit]

    Plays[edit]

    Short fiction[edit]

    Collections[edit]

    Essays, reporting and other contributions[edit]

    Edited works[edit]

    • Telling Tales (2004)
    • Telling Times: Writing and Living, 1950–2008 (2010)

    Other[edit]

    • "The Gordimer Stories" (1981–82) – adaptations of seven short stories; she wrote screenplays for four of them
    • On the Mines (1973)
    • Lifetimes Under Apartheid (1986)
    • "Choosing for Justice: Allan Boesak" (1983) (documentary with Hugo Cassirer)
    • "Berlin and Johannesburg: The Wall and the Colour Bar" (documentary with Hugo Cassirer)

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ ab"The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991". Nobelprize. 7 October 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
    2. ^ abEttin, Andrew Vogel (1993). Betrayals of the Body Politic: The Literary Commitments of Nadine Gordimer. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. pp. 29, 30. ISBN 9780813914305.  
    3. ^Newman, Judie, ed. (2003). Nadine Gordimer's 'Burger's daughter': A Casebook. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780195147179.  
    4. ^Gordimer, Nadine (1990). Bazin, Nancy Topping; Seymour, Marilyn Dallman, eds. Conversations with Nadine Gordimer. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. p. xix. ISBN 9780878054459.  
    5. ^ abcdefghijklWästberg, Per (26 April 2001). "Nadine Gordimer and the South African Experience". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
    6. ^ abc"A Writer's Life: Nadine Gordimer", Telegraph, 3 April 2006.
    7. ^ abNadine Gordimer, Guardian Unlimited (last visited 25 January 2007).
    8. ^ abNadine Gordimer: A Sport of Nature[permanent dead link], The Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards.
    9. ^New Yorker, 9 June 1951.
    10. ^"A mixture of ice and fulfilled desire". Mail & Guardian. 14 November 2005. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
    11. ^ abcJonathan Steele, "White magic", The Guardian (London), 27 October 2001.
    12. ^Glen Frankel (5 December 2013). "The Speech at Rivonia Trial that Changed History". Washington Post. 
    13. ^Gail Caldwell, "South African Writer Given Nobel", The Boston Globe, 4 October 1991.
    14. ^"Radiation, Race, and Molly Bloom: Nadine Gordimer Talks with BookForum", BookForum, Feb / March 2006.
    15. ^Gordimer wrote an account of the censorship in "What Happened to Burger's Daughter or How South African Censorship Works".
    16. ^BBC News, "South Africa reinstates authors", 22 April 2001.
    17. ^ ab"Gordimer detractors 'insulting', says AsmalArchived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.", News24.com, 19 April 2001.
    18. ^Anuradha Kumar, "New Boundaries", The Hindu, 1 August 2004.
    19. ^ abcDonald Morrison, "Nadine Gordimer", Time Magazine, 60 Years of Heroes (2006).
    20. ^"Nobel Prize in Literature 1991 - Press Release". Nobel Media AB. 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
    21. ^Christopher S. Wren, "Former Censors Bow Coldly to Apartheid Chronicler", New York Times, 6 October 1991.
    22. ^ abAgence France-Presse, "Nobel laureates join battle against AIDS", 1 December 2004.
    23. ^Gordimer and literary giants fight AIDS, iafrica.com, 29 November 2004.
    24. ^Nadine Gordimer and Anthony Sampson, Letter to The New Review of Books, 16 November 2000.
    25. ^Johnson, RW (29 October 2006). "Nobel writer Nadine Gordimer, 82, attacked and robbed". London: The Times. Retrieved 22 February 2010. 
    26. ^Jannika Hurwitt, Interview with Gordimer, Paris Review, 88, Summer 1983.
    27. ^ abDonadio, Rachel (31 December 2006). "Nadine Gordimer and the Hazards of Biography". New York Times. Retrieved 12 April 2007. 
    28. ^"SA novelist Nadine Gordimer dies". News24.com. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014. 
    29. ^Smith, David (15 July 2014). "Nadine Gordimer dies aged 90". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
    30. ^Becker, Jillian (September 2014). "Nadine Gordimer: 'Comrade Madam'". Standpoint. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
    31. ^Liukkonen, Petri. "Nadine Gordimer". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. 
    32. ^"Judith Newman Special Commissioned Essay on The Lying Days by Nadine Gordimer Essay - Critical Essays". eNotes.com. 1923-11-20. Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
    33. ^"Bram Fischer Human Rights Programme". Wits School of Law. 2005. Archived from the original on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
    34. ^Dwight Garner and Nadine Gordimer, The Salon Interview: Nadine Gordimer, March 1998.
    35. ^ReadingGroup Guide, The House Gun by Nadine Gordimer, Bookreporter.com
    36. ^David Medalie, "'The Context of the Awful Event': Nadine Gordimer's The House Gun", Journal of South African Studies, v.25, n.4 (December 1999), pp. 633–644.
    37. ^J.M. CoetzeeReview of The Pickup and Loot and Other Stories, nytimes.com, 23 October 2003.
    38. ^Sue Kossew, "Review of Nadine Gordimer, The PickupArchived 21 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine.", Quodlibet, v.1, February 2005.
    39. ^Penguin Book Clubs/Reading Guides, Nadine Gordimer's The Pickup

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